JOHN WAYNE

john_wayne.jpg
John Wayne (born Marion Morrison) was born on May 26, 1907 and died June 11, 1979 from stomach cancer. He is famous for his roles in many famous western films, including “Stagecoach” (1939), “The Alamo” (1960- which he produced, directed and starred in), “The Green Berets” (1968) and many others. Wayne grew up in California with his father, mother and younger brother. He helped his father, who was a pharmacist, deliver medication. He had an Airedale dog named Duke, for whom he got his nickname. Wayne was a good student and football player which helped get him get into University of Southern California on a football scholarship. During the summers, he got a job as a prop man (in exchange for football tickets) where his career as an actor began. During his lifetime, “Duke” appeared in 250 movies! He was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1964 which he survived after doctors removed part of his lung. Wayne was diagnosed in in 1979 with stomach cancer and passed away soon after.





John Wayne had a family history of cancer with his brother developing lung cancer. Wayne also smoked a lot which is a risk factor for stomach cancer. His entire stomach was removed in an attempt to eliminate the cancer. It was unsuccessful and a later check-up showed that the cancer had spread to his intestines. He went into a coma on June 10th, and died the next day. In 1981, his family created the John Wayne Cancer Institute, in honor of their father. The institute performs research on cancer and helps to train future oncologists. It also performs clinical trials on patients in order to find better drugs and possibly a cure. Research is focused mainly on melanoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, gastro-intestinal cancer and sarcoma.


The Duke's Input on Cancer

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is a type of cancer that forms in the lining of the stomach and in the lymph nodes on the exterior of the stomach.
This picture shows the stomach and nearby organs.
This picture shows the stomach and nearby organs.
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/stomach/page2
Symptoms: (early stomach cancer is asymptomatic)
- Discomfort or pain in the stomach area
- Difficulty Swallowing
- Nausea and vomiting
- Weight loss
- Feeling full/bloated after a small meal
- Vomiting blood or blood in stool

Risk Factors:
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection
× Infects inner lining of the stomach
× Causes inflammation and peptic ulcers
- Long-term inflammation of the stomach
- Smoking
- Family History
- Poor diet/obesity/no exercise
It is unknown why some people develop stomach cancer and others don’t.
Even with no risk factors a person can still develop stomach cancer.

Stages (ddddddddddddoo
Description (one of the scenarios)
Treatment Options (any or all)
Stage 0
tumor is found only in the inner layer
gastrectomy (removal of part or all of the stomach)

lymphadenectomy (removal of lymph nodes)
Stage 1
tumor has invade the submucosa and up to 6 lymph nodes

tumor has invaded the muscle layer or subserosa but not the lymph nodes
chemotherapy (etoposide, cisplatin, capecitabine (Xeloda), and 5-FU)

gastrectomy

lymphadenectomy

radiation
Stage 2
tumor has invaded the submucosa and 7 to 15 lymph nodes

tumor has invaded the muscle layer or subserosa and 1 to 6 lymph nodes

tumor has penetrated the outer layer
gastrectomy

lymphadenectomy

radiation

chemotherapy
Stage 3
tumor has invaded the muscle layer or subserosa and 7 to 15 lymph nodes

tumor has penetrated the outer layer and 1 to 15 lymph nodes

tumor has invaded nearby organs (liver, colon, spleen)
gastrectomy

lymphadenectomy

radiation

chemotherapy
Stage 4
cancer cells have spread to at least 15 lymph nodes


tumor has invaded nearby organs and at least 1 lymph node


cancer cells have spread to distant organs
surgery to keep intestines and stomach from being obstructed or bleeding

chemotherapy (docetaxel, oxaliplatin, capecitabine, Trastuzumab (Herceptin), or irinotecan along with drugs in stage 1)

Radiation

United States (2010):
21,000 new cases
10,570 deaths



United States map showing age-adjusted incidence rates by state.
United States map showing age-adjusted incidence rates by state.

http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/map/map.withimage.php?00&001&018&00&0&1&0&1&6&0#map

United States map showing age-adjusted death rates by state.
United States map showing age-adjusted death rates by state.

[
http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/map/map.withimage.php?00&001&018&00&0&2&0&1&6&0#map

More Information: (follow link)

http://www.cancer.gov/aboutnci/servingpeople/snapshots/stomach.pdf


Clinical Trials:

In 2009, a study was done that had the drug Trastuzumab (a drug used to treat breast cancer) being used with chemotherapy drugs used to treat stomach cancer. The results showed a 26 percent reduction in deaths due to stomach cancer with the patients living, on average, almost three months longer. Trastuzumab is the first drug that helped to improve overall survival for patients with gastric cancer in a phase III trial.

In 2008, a study was done in Japan that involved giving stomach cancer patients a drug called S-1. This drug allowed patients to live on estimate a two months longer. It is not approved in the United States because European and Japanese descendents break down the drug differently. Many people in the United States would not be able to tolerate the levels needed for the drug to work. It does give promise to finding better medication.


Works Cited Link: