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Julia Child

Julia Child was born August 15, 1912 in Pasadena California. She attended a private girls school and went on to study writing at Smith College. During World War II, she became a research assisstant at the Office of Strategic Services. She was sent on assignments all around the world. In 1945, in Sri Lanka, she met Paul Child. At the end of the war, upon returning to the United States, they were married. Paul and Julia were relocated to France. Julia discovered her love for French cuisine and attended the prestigious Cordon Bleu cooking school. Following her training, she and two other women established their own cooking school. The women began to write a French cookbook for Americans. After personality and commitment conflicts,external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQlWDmc5Dsi828RKTiExZwladBFb9fnTb0CwP1dQn2lUFRKswiUdA Julia and Simone Beck were the two that finished the book. Mastering the Art of French Cooking was released in 1961. It instantly became a best seller. In 1962, she became the host of her own cooking show, The French Chef. Each episode of the show was done in one take which led to many fallacious cooking attempts. Sometimes she spilled her food and made a mess in the kitchen but it let the audience know that "she's just like us!". At a towering 6 foot 2 inches and a dramatic voice, her show was always popular and received a lot of attention. In 1968, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After her mastectomy, the cancer did not return. Her beloved Paul died in a nursing home in 1994 after suffering from a series of strokes. Julia died in 2004 of kidney failure. Throughout her 92 years, she brought great pleasure and fond memories to people who experienced her flamboyant demeanor and passion for cooking. Recently, in 2009 Columbia Pictures released a movie titled Julie & Julia, a movie based on the blog of young Julie Powell. Julie decided to challenge herself to 365 days of cooking, where she successfully made it through every recipe in Julia's cookbook. She kept her curious followers updated weekly by blogging about the entire experience. Below is a picture linking to orignial Julie/Julia Project! Before Julia Child's death she donated her entire kitchen to the Smithsonian Museum of American History and it is currently still on display and visited by thousands.


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Breast Cancer

Symptoms
  • breast lump
  • discharge (other than milk) from nipple
  • changes in size, shape, or skin of the breast
  • an inverted or flaking nipple
Since these symptoms are visible, this allows women to screen themselves. Women also go for routinely mammograms.


Causes
The cause of breast cancer varies from patient to patient. Some patients may be diagnosed with breast cancer due to radiation, pesticide, or other chemical exposure. Smoking can also cause breast cancer. It is known that it occurs when breast cells begin to rapidly divide. It often begins in the milk-producing ducts, lobules, or other breast cells. It is likely that breast caner is caused by "a complex combination of genetic makeup and environment," say researchers at the Mayo Clinic. Some forms of breast cancer may be inherited. It is linked to a mutated gene that has been passed from generation to generation. Defective breast cancer genes can be detected through blood tests.



Reduce risk
  • self-examination and doctor screenings and mammograms help detect breast cancer early
  • consume, at the most, one drink of alcohol a day
  • exercise most days of the week for at least 30 minutes
  • after menopause, use the lowest dose of hormone therapy for the shortest amount of time
  • maintain a healthy weight
  • taking estrogen-blocking medications help if there is a family history of breast cancer


Epidemiology
breast_cancer_chart.jpg
  • 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in the United States.
  • For women in the US, breast cancer has the second highest death rate among cancer patients.
  • In 2010, there were more than 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the U.S.
  • About 70-80% of breast cancer patients have no family history of it.
  • Gender and age are the leading factors of developing breast cancer.
  • 207,090 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. 39,840 cases resutled in death.
  • In men, 1,970 were diagnosed and 390 died in 2010.






















Treatments
There are several different types of treatment available to those diagnosed with breast cancer. Most can be classified into sugeries or therapies.

Common Practices

  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (happens before the actual surgery)
    • Removal of sentinel lymph node (first lymph node the cancer spreads to) for testing
  • Breast-conserving surgeries- remove tumor but not the entire breast
    • Lumpectomy
      • Removes tumor and small amount of tissue around it
    • Partial mastectomy/segmental mastectomy
      • Removes tumor and small amount of lymph nodes
    • Blue dye injected near tumor, flows through lymph node ducts to actual lymph nodes (allows doctors to see which are connected to the cancer)
      • First node to receive blue dye is removed, examine for cancer cells
        • If none are found-no more are removed
Other Surgeries
  • Total mastectomy (aka mastectomy)
    • Removes entire breast along with tumor
  • Modified radical mastectomy
    • Removes entire breast, many lymph nodes, lining over chest muscles, sometimes chest wall muscles
  • Radical mastectomy (Halsted radical mastectomy)
    • Removes entire breast, chest wall muscles under breast, and all lymph nodes under arm
Therapies
  • Chemotherapy
    • Systemic Chemotherapy
      • Drugs are injected directly into bloodstream
    • Regional Chemotherapy
      • Drugs are injected directly into infected organ or cancerous region in body
  • Hormone Therapy
    • Removes hormones in order to stop cancer cell growth
  • Targeted Therapy
    • Uses drugs or antibodies to attack specific cancer cells and does not harm normal cells


There is hope!

Many clinical and surgical trials have been conducted on thousands of women with breast cancer. Many of the findings are not definite but the results seemed
Click the picture to visit the Smithsonian's site!
Click the picture to visit the Smithsonian's site!
to follow a trend. In the largest randomized surgical trial, women who got their lymph nodes removed and women who didn't had the same overall survival rate eight years after. However, in this particular study, doctors found that it may only apply to women with small tumors. Patients with larger tumors have a higher risk of the cancer reoccurring. Results of clinical trials testing lymph node surgery showed similar findings. Women with early-stage breast cancer and underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (removal of one or lymph nodes in the armpit to test for cancer cells) lives just as long as women who underwent the same procedure followed by axillary lymph node dissection, which is more invasive and removes many lymph nodes. Dr. Zujewski reports that the results support the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies in women with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes, without the need to undergo axillary lymph node dissection. The less invasive procedure would also spare women from experiencing the damaging side effects. However, these results only applied to a specific population of women. In the group that had axillary lymph node dissection, 70% of women experienced infection, delayed healing, and pain while only 25% of women in the sentinel lymph node group experienced these side effects. In the trial, 90% of women lived five years after diagnosis. Another study involved the incorporation of zoledronic acid to standard chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. Zoledronic acid inhibits the release of calcium from bones, thus preventing loss of bone mass. The results showed an increased rate of disease free survival in premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. Women who had been menopausal for at least 5 years had significantly increased disease free survival and overall survival rate. The scientists working on this trial hypothesized that for effective use of zoledronic acid depends on a low estrogen level. The results are "very intriguing but not definite," says Dr. Sharon Giordano. There is not one exact way to cure breast cancer while still conserving the breast. Because cancer is so different and greatly varies among people, some treatments will work and others will not.



Julia with Cancer

Julia Child developed breast cancer at an older age. She underwent one treatment, a mastectomy. This took out her cancer and she lived the rest of her life cancer free. Some of the risk factors that she encountered were smoking and drinking. She was a heavier heavy smoker, starting at a young age. She also superfluously drank wine. You can witness this in many of her cooking episodes. She did not create and organizations for cancer or anything else for that matter.


Click on the poster for the real Julie and Julia Project.
Click on the poster for the real Julie and Julia Project.


Works Cited

“Breast Cancer Treatments.” cancer.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://www.cancer.gov/‌cancertopics/‌pdq/‌treatment/‌breast/‌Patient/‌page5>.
“Breast Cancer Trial results.” cancer.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://www.cancer.gov/‌clinicaltrials/‌results/‌type/‌breast>.
The French Chef. Advertisement. PBS. 1976. Amazon. Web. 2 May 2011. <http://www.google.com/‌imgres?imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/‌_u34kR9FsMCg/‌SOa-piJ5JwI/‌AAAAAAAAABM/‌FMLUc19fPpg/‌s400/‌51pt3spOpbL._SS500_.jpg&imgrefurl=http://973third.blogspot.com/‌2008_10_01_archive.html&usg=__HhHadpUNusSKH8UC2EcHJvDINDg=&h=400&w=400&sz=34&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=rgQzXU64OaLrQM:&tbnh=147&tbnw=147&ei=Kdu-TeyeHsrt0gGDnNHFBg&prev=/‌search%3Fq%3Dthe%2Bfrench%2Bchef%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D599%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=813&vpy=230&dur=891&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=104&ty=116&page=1&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0>.
Julia and Paul Child. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2011. <http://t1.gstatic.com/‌images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQlWDmc5Dsi828RKTiExZwladBFb9fnTb0CwP1dQn2lUFRKswiUdA>.
“Julia Child Biography.” biography.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://www.biography.com/‌articles/‌Julia-Child-9246767>.
Julia Child's Kitchen. N.d. Smithsonian Institute. Web. 5 May 2011. <http://americanhistory.si.edu/juliachild/>.
"Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases." Graph. Healthy People. American Cancer Society, 2000. Web. 5 May 2011. <http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/Document/images/cancer.jpg>.
Lewis, Jone Johnson. “Julia Child.” About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://womenshistory.about.com/‌od/‌cookbooks/‌a/‌julia_child_2.htm>.
“Lymph Nodes.” Lymph Nodes. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. <http://thelymphnodes.com/>.
“mastectomy.” Merriam Webster. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/‌dictionary/‌mastectomy>.
Mayo Clinic staff. “Breast Cancer.” mayoclinic.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/‌health/‌breast-cancer/‌DS00328>.
“The omelette show.” The French Chef. PBS. 1962. youtube. Web. Transcript. 3 May 2011.
Powell, Julie. Weblog post. The Julie/‌Julia Project. N.p., 13 Aug. 2004. Web. 3 May 2011. <The Julie/‌Julia Project>.
“U.S. Breast Cancer Statistics.” breastcancer.org. N.p., Apr. 2011. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. <http://www.breastcancer.org/‌symptoms/‌understand_bc/‌statistics.jsp>.