Rudolph W. Giuliani
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Biography:
Rudolph W. Giuliani, or simply Rudy Giuliani, was born in 1944 as the grandson of Italian immigrants. He attended Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, Manhattan College, and eventually graduated New York University Law School in 1968. After his graduation, he worked as a clerk for Judge Lloyd MacMahon. He eventually joined the office of the U.S. Attorney in 1970. Later in 1975, he was named Associate Deputy Attorney General and chief of staff to the Deputy Attorney General when he was recruited to Washington, D.C. Rudy Giuliani later returned to New York to practice law from 1977 to 1981. In 1981, he was named Associate Attorney General and would be promoted again in 1983, when he was named US Attorney for the Southern District of New York. He went on to make 4,152 convictions with only 25 reversals during his amd_rudy.jpgcareer.
Giuliani campaigned unsuccessfully to be mayor of New York City, but ran again in 1993 and won. In 1997, he was reelected and he improved the quality off life in the city. He reduced the overall crime rate down
by 57% and murder by 65%, making New York one of the safest cities in America. On April 27, 2000, Rudy Giuliani announced he had developed prostate cancer, which was in an early, treatable form. He was treated with radioactive seed implants in his prostate gland.



Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:Prostate-Cancer2.jpg
The symptoms below are associated with prostate cancer, but can be caused from other things as well.
  • Delayed or slowed start of urinary stream
  • Dribbling or leakage of urine, most often after urinating
  • Slow urinary stream
  • Straining when urinating, or not being able to empty out all of the urine
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Bone pain or tenderness (only when the cancer has spread)



Causes/Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer:
  • Being African-American
  • Being above the age of 60
  • Being a farmer
  • Being a tire plant worker
  • Being a painter
  • Having a family history
  • Having a high-fat diet
  • Exposure to agent orange
  • Exposure to cadmium
  • Alcohol abuse



Prostate Cancer Epidemiology:
Prostate Cancer is the second-most common type of cancer among males in western populations, preceded by skin cancer. The highest rates of prostate cancer occur in the Caribbean and Scandinavia and the lowest rates occur in China, Japan, and countries of the former Soviet Union. In the United States alone, greater than 70% of all cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed in men above 65 years in age. Cases of prostate cancer in men under 50 years of age are rare, but the rate of development increases exponentially after age 50. The overall lifetime risk of developing this cancer is 16.7%

Incidence Rates by Race||~ Race/Ethnicity ||~ Male ||
All Races
156.0 per 100,000 men
White
149.5 per 100,000 men
Black
233.8 per 100,000 men
Asian/Pacific Islander
88.3 per 100,000 men
American Indian/Alaska Native
75.3 per 100,000 men
Hispanic
107.4 per 100,000 men


Treatment of Prostate Cancer:

  • Surgery
    • Surgery to remove the prostate and some surrounding tissue is only an option when it has not spread, called a radical prostatectomy
    • Complication resulting from surgery include difficulty controlling urine or bowel movements and erection problems
  • Radiation Therapy
    • Involves high-powered x-rays or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells
    • Therapy takes place 5 days per week for 5-6 weeks
    • Treatment itself is painless and involves usage of a machine that looks like an x-ray machine
    • Side effects may include impotence, incontinence, appetite loss, fatigue, skin reactions, rectal burning or injury, diarrhea, bladder urgency, and blood in urine
  • Hormone Therapy
    • Decreases the effect of testosterone on prostate cancer, which may help reduce the growth and spread of cancer
    • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones block the body from making testosterone and its side effects include nausea and vomiting, hot flashes, anemia, lethargy, osteoporosis, and others
    • Other medications are androgen-blocking drugs and their side effects include erectile dysfunction, loss of sexual desire, liver problems, and enlarged breasts
    • Removal of the testes also serves as hormone therapy because much of the body's testosterone is made there


Prognosis:
Between 2003 and 2007, the death rate was 0.0% under age 20; 0.0% between 20 and 34; 0.1% between 35 and 44; 1.4% between 45 and 54; 7.5% between 55 and 64; 19.9% between 65 and 74; 40.3% between 75 and 84; and 30.8% 85+ years of age. The age-adjusted death for men in the U.S. was 24.7 per 100,000 men per year between 2003 and 2007.

Works Cited:

“A Biography of Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani.” NYC.gov. The City of New York, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. <http://www.nyc.gov/‌html/‌records/‌rwg/‌html/‌bio.html>.
Bumiller, Elisabeth. “Giuliani Fighting Prostate Cancer; Unsure on Senate.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. 2 May 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/‌2000/‌04/‌28/‌nyregion/‌giuliani-fighting-prostate-cancer-unsure-on-senate.html?pagewanted=all>.
- - -. “MAYOR UNDERGOES CANCER TREATMENT.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. 2 May 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/‌2000/‌09/‌16/‌nyregion/‌mayor-undergoes-cancer-treatment.html?pagewanted=all>.
Burton, Danielle. “10 Things You Didn’t Know About Rudy Giuliani.” U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News, 2011. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. <http://www.usnews.com/‌usnews/‌news/‌articles/‌070207/‌7giulianifacts.htm>.
Crawford, E. David. Epidemiology of Prostate Cacner. Denver: University of Colorado Health and Science Center, 2003. PDF file.
Miller, Scott, ed. “Prostate cancer.” PubMed Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information, 23 Sept. 2010. Web. 5 May 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/‌pubmedhealth/‌PMH0001418/>.
“SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate.” Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. National Cancer Institute, n.d. Web. 6 May 2011.

Images:
http://www.topnews.in/rudy-giuliani-presents-wrong-nhs-figures-alan-johnson-24988
http://assets.nydailynews.com/img/2007/11/30/amd_rudy.jpg
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